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Immanuel Kant for example, expressed the need for a Metaphysics in quite similar terms to Aristotle. To describe it another way, Aristotle treated organisms and other natural wholes as existing at a higher level than mere matter in motion. Aristotle's argument for formal and final causes is related to a doctrine about how it is possible that people know things: "If nothing exists apart from individual things, nothing will be intelligible; everything will be sensible, and there will be no knowledge of anything—unless it be maintained that sense-perception is knowledge". [7] Those philosophers who disagree with this reasoning therefore also see knowledge differently from Aristotle. We classified definitions of purity into three categories: “explicitly contra-harm,”“implicitly contra-harm,” or “stand-alone.” A definition was coded as “explicitly contra-harm” if it outright described purity violations as moral violations that did not involve harm. For example, the definition offered by Graham et al. (2009) describes “issues related to food, sex, clothing, prayer, and gender roles as moral issues, even when they involve no harm to any person” (p.1030; italics added for emphasis). Similarly, the definition of purity offered by Haidt (2007) describes purity as “intuitions about bodily and spiritual purity and the importance of living in a sanctified rather than a carnal way” (p. 1001) and states that “morality is about more than harm and fairness” (p. 998; italics added for emphasis). Thus, this definition explicitly refers to purity as something other than just harm. Likewise, Vasquez and colleagues (2001) described purity violations saying: “Some breaches did not violate rights or involve physical harm, but were instead disrespectful, analogous to Community, and disgusting, analogous to Divinity” (p. 96). Again, purity violations are explicitly described as not causing harm (note that Vasquez and colleagues explicitly state that purity and divinity are used interchangeably; pg 98.). In this article, we first review the historical development of the concept of purity. This review reveals substantial conceptual heterogeneity across history, which lays the groundwork for substantial conceptual heterogeneity across moral psychology. Second, we perform a systematic analysis of definitions and operationalizations of purity across all published papers from 1990 to 2019, which provides support for the idea that purity is a contra-chimera—a single name referring to a heterogenous set of understandings defined in contrast to obvious interpersonal harm. Third, we evaluate the four purity-relevant claims before providing recommendations for conducting future research on purity in moral psychology.

Phusis is the Greek word for Nature, and Aristotle is drawing attention to the similarity it has to the verb used to describe natural growth in a plant, phusei. Indeed the first use of the word involves a plant: ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας πόρε φάρμακον ἀργεϊφόντης ἐκ γαίης ἐρύσας, καί μοι φύσιν αὐτοῦ ἔδειξε. "So saying, Argeiphontes [=Hermes] gave me the herb, drawing it from the ground, and showed me its nature." Odyssey 10.302-3 (ed. A.T. Murray).

In addition to broadening the scope of morality, research on purity directly challenged the Kohlbergian claim that moral judgments are a product of careful reasoning about harm ( Kohlberg, 1969). In what is likely the best-known moral psychology demonstration, Haidt asked participants why it is wrong for two siblings to have consensual, loving, safe sex. This vignette was seen as a purity violation rather than a harm violation because it was “carefully written to be harmless” ( Haidt et al., 2000, p. 5). Each time participants appealed to the potential rationalist, harm-based reasons (e.g., the siblings might have deformed children), the experimenter argued that those reasons were invalid (e.g., potential children are not an issue because contraceptives were used). Eventually, once all the reasons offered by participants had been dismissed, participants stopped offering additional reasons, a phenomenon labeled “moral dumbfounding” ( Haidt et al., 2000). Late modern" nature [ edit ] Jean-Jacques Rousseau: a civilized man, but a person who questioned whether civilization was according to human nature. Coding Classes: “ People should be pure in what they say (don’t swear/lie/gossip)... People should be moral individuals. ” ( Vasquez et al., 2001, p. 118)

In contrast to most psychological constructs, which are defined “positively”—this construct is x—we suggest purity is defined “negatively”—this construct is not y. In the case of purity, this negative definition is “not interpersonal harm.” Being defined negatively allows for a very heterogeneous set of acts, qualities, and characteristics to count as purity. Although positively defined sets can sometimes be heterogeneous, negatively defined sets are necessarily more heterogeneous. As Bertrand Russel long ago noted, the set of “not y” (e.g., not cars, not cats, not even numbers) is much more varied than the set of “is x” (e.g., planes, dogs, odd numbers; Irvine & Deutsch, 1995). More succinctly, we suggest that purity is best understood as a “contra-chimera.” Purity is “contra” (defined as “in opposition or contrast to”) because it is understood as contrary to obvious interpersonal or “dyadic” harm ( Schein & Gray, 2018) and as a chimera (defined as “a mixture of genetically different tissues”; Rogers, 2018) with a diverse set of characteristics and definitions. The word "nature" derives from Latin nātūra, a philosophical term derived from the verb for birth, which was used as a translation for the earlier ( pre-Socratic) Greek term phusis, derived from the verb for natural growth.virtues of purity and practices regulating food and sex (e.g., Douglas, 1966) bore an obvious relationship to the evolutionary literature on disgust ” ( Graham et al., 2011, p. 368) The third binding moral foundation— Purity/sanctity—was specifically proposed by Haidt and Joseph (2007) to be an antipathogen defense system that underlies moral concerns regarding issues of contamination” ( van Leeuwen et al., 2012, p. 431) Gunnar Skirbekk, Nils Gilje, A history of Western thought: from ancient Greece to the twentieth century. 7th edition published by Routledge, 2001, p. 25. Shweder’s cross-cultural research sparked two developments in moral psychology. Most relevant to Shweder’s initial work is the cultural developmental theory of moral psychology ( Jensen, 2015b), which treats divinity as one of three clusters of values (divinity, autonomy and community) revealed in moral reasoning and rhetoric. These values are understood not as mutually exclusive or competing but instead as co-existing, complementary, and even mutually reinforcing themes of discussion. In other words, rhetoric condemning the same act (e.g., gay marriage), can be framed in terms of divinity (gay marriage violates God’s will), community (gay marriage destroys fabric of society), or autonomy (gay marriage hurts children). The framework provided by cultural-development theory treats divinity not as a specific psychological mechanism or “domain” that is distinct from harm but rather as an important value often raised in discussions and justifications of moral judgment.

Vignette: “Phil, who is 18 years old, and his 67-year-old neighbor kiss each other passionately and rub against each other until they climax (Purity)” ( Piazza et al., 2013, p. 715) Conze, Edward (2013), Buddhist Thought in India: Three Phases of Buddhist Philosophy, Routledge, pp.39–40, ISBN 978-1134542314 Bamboo Extract: I can’t say much for the bamboo extract’s “mattifying properties and ability to absorb oil,” especially considering how far down on the list of ingredients it is, but if having matte skin hours later is anything to go by, it’s got to be doing something. Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A comparative history of world philosophy: from the Upanishads to Kant, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 9-11 Harvey, Peter (1990), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p. 54, ISBN 978-0521313339

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